Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), is a hormone produced by the ovaries' small follicles and serves as a crucial indicator of ovarian reserve that provides accurate information of a woman's remaining egg quantity which further helps in planning conception. When evaluating a woman's capacity for conception, particularly as she matures, this measurement is essential.
• Reduced Ovarian Reserve: Decreased ovarian reserve, or fewer eggs in the ovaries than usual for a woman's age, is usually indicated by low AMH values.
• Impact on Fertility: As a woman ages, having a reduced ovarian reserve may make conception more difficult. It could be a precursor to decreased fertility.
• Response to Ovarian Stimulation: Women with low AMH may need greater doses of medicine to promote egg production and may respond less well to reproductive therapies like in vitro fertilization (IVF).
• Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Conditions such as PCOS, in which the ovaries have an abnormal number of tiny, immature follicles, can be linked to high levels of AMH.
• Impact on Menstrual Cycles: An irregular menstrual cycle and difficulties ovulating are common side effects of PCOS that can impair fertility.
• Response to Ovarian Stimulation: During reproductive therapies such as IVF, women with PCOS and elevated AMH levels may be susceptible to overstimulation.
For fertility and pregnancy, an AMH level of 1.5-4.0 ng/ml is usually considered normal; values below 1.5 ng/ml may suggest a declining ovarian reserve with a reduced egg count.